Tag Archives: black hole

Another Glorious Hubble Image

This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the spiral galaxy NGC 4845, located over 65 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo (The Virgin). The galaxy’s orientation clearly reveals the galaxy’s striking spiral structure: a flat and dust-mottled disc surrounding a bright galactic bulge. NGC 4845’s glowing centre hosts a gigantic version of a black hole, known as a supermassive black hole. The presence of a black hole in a distant galaxy like NGC 4845 can be inferred from its effect on the galaxy’s innermost stars; these stars experience a strong gravitational pull from the black hole and whizz around the galaxy’s centre much faster than otherwise. From investigating the motion of these central stars, astronomers can estimate the mass of the central black hole — for NGC 4845 this is estimated to be hundreds of thousands times heavier than the Sun. This same technique was also used to discover the supermassive black hole at the centre of our own Milky Way — Sagittarius A* — which hits some four million times the mass of the Sun (potw1340a). The galactic core of NGC 4845 is not just supermassive, but also super-hungry. In 2013 researchers were observing another galaxy when they noticed a violent flare at the centre of NGC 4845. The flare came from the central black hole tearing up and feeding off an object many times more massive than Jupiter. A brown dwarf or a large planet simply strayed too close and was devoured by the hungry core of NGC 4845.

The Hubble Space Telescope captured this recent image of spiral galaxy NGC 4845. The galaxy lies around 65 million light-years from Earth, but it still presents a gorgeous sight. NGC 4845’s glowing center hosts a supermassive, and super hungry, black hole.

Thanks NASA, but I just wish you would give these galaxies more memorable names.

Image: NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the spiral galaxy NGC 4845, located over 65 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo. Courtesy: ESA/Hubble & NASA and S. Smartt (Queen’s University Belfast).

Are Black Holes the Architects of the Universe?

[div class=attrib]From Discover:[end-div]

Black holes are finally winning some respect. After long regarding them as agents of destruction or dismissing them as mere by-products of galaxies and stars, scientists are recalibrating their thinking. Now it seems that black holes debuted in a constructive role and appeared unexpectedly soon after the Big Bang. “Several years ago, nobody imagined that there were such monsters in the early universe,” says Penn State astrophysicist Yuexing Li. “Now we see that black holes were essential in creating the universe’s modern structure.”

Black holes, tortured regions of space where the pull of gravity is so intense that not even light can escape, did not always have such a high profile. They were once thought to be very rare; in fact, Albert Einstein did not believe they existed at all. Over the past several decades, though, astronomers have realized that black holes are not so unusual after all: Supermassive ones, millions or billions of times as hefty as the sun, seem to reside at the center of most, if not all, galaxies. Still, many people were shocked in 2003 when a detailed sky survey found that giant black holes were already common nearly 13 billion years ago, when the universe was less than a billion years old. Since then, researchers have been trying to figure out where these primordial holes came from and how they influenced the cosmic events that followed.

In August, researchers at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University ran a supercomputer simulation of the early universe and provided a tantalizing glimpse into the lives of the first black holes. The story began 200 million years after the Big Bang, when the universe’s first stars formed. These beasts, about 100 times the mass of the sun, were so large and energetic that they burned all their hydrogen fuel in just a few million years. With no more energy from hydrogen fusion to counteract the enormous inward pull of their gravity, the stars collapsed until all of their mass was compressed into a point of infinite density.

The first-generation black holes were puny compared with the monsters we see at the centers of galaxies today. They grew only slowly at first—adding just 1 percent to their bulk in the next 200 million years—because the hyperactive stars that spawned them had blasted away most of the nearby gas that they could have devoured. Nevertheless, those modest-size black holes left a big mark by performing a form of stellar birth control: Radiation from the trickle of material falling into the holes heated surrounding clouds of gas to about 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit, so hot that the gas could no longer easily coalesce. “You couldn’t really form stars in that stuff,” says Marcelo Alvarez, lead author of the Kavli study.

[div class=attrib]More from theSource here.[end-div]

[div class=attrib]Image courtesy of KIPAC/SLAC/M.Alvarez, T. Able, and J. Wise.[end-div]